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Here at NJ Salon in Sheffield we are committed to hairdressing excellence.

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A hairdresser is someone whose occupation is to cut or style hair, in order to change or maintain a person's image as they desire. This is achieved using a combination of hair colouring, hair cut and hair texture techniques.

In the states hairdressers are often known as rundys, hair technicians or beauticians. In various countries the synonyms change and the usage frequency depends on the normal colloquialisms of the area. In the US, technicians and stylists usually dominate while in countries like the UK, Australia and New Zealand, hairdresser seems to be more commonly used.

The profession may have begun in the latter centuries of the English aristocracy as hair became a large part of their culture. Dressing the hair was a rich or noble part of one's birthright in the upper classes of England.

Hair colouring products generally fall into four categories: temporary, semipermanent, deposit only/demi, and permanent. All these hair colour products, except for temporary colour, require a patch test before application to determine if the client is allergic to the product.


For humans, haircut, hairstyle, or hairdo normally describe cutting or styling head hair. Unlike other animals, human beings of many cultures cut their hair, rather than letting it grow naturally. Hair styles are often used to signal cultural, social, and ethnic identity. Hair styles in both men and women also vary with current fashion trends, and are often used to determine social status.

There is a thriving world market in cut human hair of sufficient length for wig manufacture and for the production of training for student hairdressers and barbers. In less developed countries, selling one's hair can be a significant source of income depending on length, thickness, condition, and colour, wig makers have been known to pay as much as US$40 for a head of hair. In the United States, cut hair of at least 10 inches (25 cm) length may be donated to a charity, such as Locks of love


In the 17th century, Manchu invaders issued the Queue Order, requiring Chinese, who did not traditionally cut their hair, to shave their heads like Manchus. The Chinese resisted. Tens of thousands of people were killed due to their hairstyle.

In the 1920s, the evangelist Billy Sunday popularized the phrase "long-haired men and short-haired women", a term he meant to encompass his disapproval of radicals, liberated women, homosexuals, and Greenwich Village artists.

Until the Beatles came along, classical music was called longhaired music, because a longer style was popular among male orchestral musicians and conductors. In 2006, Virginia Senator George Allen became involved in a political controversy that turned, in part, on the difference between a mullet and a Mohawk.

Types of Haircut

  • Afro, a hairstyle popular with people of African descent; however the hairstyle can be worn by anyone of any ethnic background; it is usually curly, and can be worn short or long.
  • Bangs
  • Bantu/Zulu knots, haircut of African origin consisting of many small buns.
  • Beatle haircut or 'Moptop', after the fashion of the early Beatles, long all around, neatly cut, very new to Americans at the time, but not an uncommon British haircut. During the height of "Beatlemania," "Beatle wigs" were sold.
  • The Beehive, a large "big hair" style popular in the 1960s.
  • Big hair, various styles denoting a lot of volume.
  • Bouffant, another "big hair" style.
  • Bun
  • Buzz cut, also called a butch cut; short all over.
  • Bob, a short cut for women, first popular in the 1920s, considered a sign of a liberated woman.
  • Bowl cut or "Moe", after the Three Stooges character.
  • Caesar cut, a short men's cut with longer bangs, also called a Clooney cut; widely popular among men from the early 1990s to the present.
  • Chelsea girl, shaving the crown and occiput of the head, and leaving the front, back and often the sides as fringes.
  • Chonmage, a samurai's topknot; the hair on the top of the head was usually shaved, and the rest of the hair gathered together and tied in a topknot; a modified version is still worn by some sumo wrestlers.
  • Comb over, combing hair over a bald spot.
  • Cornrows, raised, continuous braids, woven closely to the scalp; originating in indigenous Africa, they remain a popular African American hairstyle.
  • Crew cut, similar to buzz, originally worn by college rowers in the 1900s to distinguish themselves from football players, who had long hair (to supplement the inadequate helmets of the time).
  • Crop, a very short woman's cut.
  • Croydon facelift
  • Devilock, short in back and on sides, long in front.
  • Dreadlocks, where hair is divided into many long, matted plaits; well known as a Rastafarian hairstyle.
  • Duck's Ass, combed long on sides, parted in back, also called ducktail or southback; the parting in the back caused the hair to stick up, hence the name. Also known as a "D.A.".
  • Fauxhawk, a fake Mohawk: short on the sides and back, medium length on top pushed up in a Mohawk direction, a portmanteau of the French 'faux' (false) and 'Mohawk'.
  • Feathered, a style which rose dramatically in popularity during the 1970s but died down in the mid 1980s; it is slowly gaining back popularity; Tim in The Goodies has this hairstyle.
  • Finger wave, popular in the 1920s and 1930s.
  • Flattop, just as it says, when combined with a D.A., called a "Detroit" because the flat top is not always compatible with a round head, there is often a spot on the top that is buzzed shorter, almost to the point of being shaved; this area is called the landing strip.
  • Fofa, short to medium length on the sides and back, with a receding hairline from the forehead back due to a natural baldness; usually found on distinguished gentlemen and derived from the style of the monks.
  • French braid Unlike a regular three-strand braid, a French braid starts with small sections of hair at the crown of a person's head, and intermittently, more hair is added to each section as the braid progresses down the head.
  • French twist A classic "updo" in which long hair is gathered into a ponytail, then twisted together, and finally tucked and pinned together along the length of the roll.
  • Goatee Connect- This is where a thin line is made of the side burns and connects into the beard. Usually done with a shape-up.
  • High and tight, cut/buzzed very short (or even shaved) on sides and back up to the crown where the hair is left longer, can be a variation of crew cut or flattop.
  • Hime cut, a women's hairstyle consisting of straight cut side bangs and frontal fringe
  • High Top Fade, popular style worn by African American males in the early late 1980's and early 1990's. Popular endorsers included Kid 'n Play and Grace Jones.
  • Hockey Hair, short bangs with medium length "flipped up" hair in the back and sides.
  • Horseshoe Flattop, sides are shaved and back is shaved to the top of the head, making the remaining hair looks from above like the top is cut like a horseshoe.
  • Induction cut, the very shortest of hairstyles, without actually shaving the head with a razor.
  • Ivy League Cut, or "Princeton", cut short and tapered at the back and sides and cut close (about inch) across the crown of the head, but getting a little longer (up to 1.5 inches) at the front of the head. It provides a little more flexibility in terms of styling while still having a crisp "buzzed" appearance.
  • Jheri curl, a perm that loosens the curls of a person with coarse hair; known more for the oily residue of the chemicals used ("Jheri Curl Juice") than the actual style.
  • Japanese Hair Straightening, a process that takes wavy or curly hair and breaks the cystine bonds by way of chemicals, then a hot iron reorganizes the structure of the hair leaving it permanently straight and healthy looking.
  • Khokhol, also spelt 'chochol' and 'chachol', a Slavic name for a longer tuft of hair left on top or on the front side of the otherwise cleanly shaven or shortly cut man's hair.
  • Layered hair, where the top layers of hair are cut shorter than the layers beneath.
  • Liberty spikes, the hair is arranged into long, thick, upright spikes.
  • Low and tight, cut/buzzed very short (or even shaved) on sides and back up to a line above the ears but below the crown, hair is left longer above this line.
  • Messed up Hair, looks like you have just got out of bed, usually for men, created using wax or putty.
  • Mohawk or 'Mohican', long hair divided into sections which are then braided and worn down, both sides are shaved or buzzed, long and usually spiked in the middle.
  • Mullet, "business" (short) in the front and on top; "party" (long) in the back.
  • Odango, a women's hairstyle consisting of two long pigtails emanating from two perfect "spheres" of hair on the top of the head; Made famous by Sailor Moon.
  • Ofuku, worn by apprentice geisha in their final two years of apprenticeship; similar to the wareshinobu style; also called a momoware ("split peach") because the bun is split and a red fabric woven in the centre.
  • Pageboy, a hairstyle in which the hair is almost shoulder-length except for a fringe in the front.
  • Perm, or "permanent wave," is a chemical-induced curling of naturally straight hair; originally created electrically with an apparatus resembling an electric chair; among African-Americans, a perm is the straight or large-curled look created by chemical relaxers.
  • Pigtails, long hair is parted in the middle and tied on the sides, often curled into ringlets (hence the name).
  • Pompadour, big wave in the front, named for Madame de Pompadour aristocratic fashion leader of pre-Revolutionary France, mistress of Louis XV of France; Elvis Presley had one.
  • Ponytail, a hairstyle where most of the wearer's hair is pulled away from the face and gathered at the back.
  • PushBack, a hairstyle worn by Si.
  • Quiff, a hairstyle where part of the hair is put up high on the top of the head.
  • Recon, a radical version of the High and Tight, with the sides and back cleanly shaved very high up the head, intentionally leaving a very extreme contrast between the longer top hair and the shaved sides.
  • Rattail, is a male with all of his hair cut short all over except for a long strip of his hair growing in the back of the middle of his head typically at about inch to an inch wide and can be as long as all the way down his back, but it is mostly found on a boy under 14 years old but some men wear one too. Occassionally females wear a rattail also.
  • Relaxer (chemical) typically done on black women, this is the process of making kinky or course hair staight. timed applications are require. Read instuctions before application.
  • Ringlet:
  • Shape-Up: This is where the barber cuts around the hairline making it visible
  • Tape-Up: Same as shape-up but part of the sides are lightened, in a skin tape-up the part of the sides are cut off.
  • Wings, a new hairstyle similar to the Beatles cut but with the side and back bangs flipped up, occasionally by the use of a ballcap, Usually worm with medium-long haircuts.

Hair Lightening

"Hair lightening," often referred to as "bleaching" or "decolourizing," is a chemical process involving the diffusion of the natural colour pigment or artificial colour from the hair. This process is central to both permanent hair colour and hair lighteners.

All permanent haircolour products and lighteners contain both a developer, or oxidizing agent, and an alkalizing ingredient as part of their ammonia or an ammonia substitute. The purpose of this is to:

  • raise the cuticle of the hair fiber so the tint can penetrate,
  • facilitate the formation of tints within the hair fiber,
  • bring about the lightening action of peroxide.

When the tint containing the alkalizing ingredient is combined with the developer (usually hydrogen peroxide), the peroxide becomes alkaline and diffuses through the hair fiber, entering the cortex, where the melanin is located. The lightening occurs when the alkaline peroxide breaks up the melanin and replaces it with new colour.

Hair Lightening Temporary

For individuals who wish to use a subtle neutralizer for yellowing hair or to neutralize unwanted tones. The pigment molecules in temporary hair color are large and, therefore, don't penetrate the cuticle layer, allowing only a coating action that may be removed by shampooing. An example of use of temporary hair color is for Halloween costumes.

Acid dyes are used to coat on the surface of hair, since acid dyes have a low affinity to hair, thus can be removed after a shampoo.

Hair Lightening Semipermanent

Formulated to last through several shampoos, depending on the hairporosity and thus on its ability to absorb moisture. The pigment molecules are small enough to partially penetrate the hair shaft and stain the cuticle layer, or to change hair color into a different color for a day. Semipermanent hair color is mostly used by women to cover up gray hairs. In some cases, if the hair already has its own natural pigment the semipermanent hair color can act as permanent hair color, because another pigment is being applied on hair that already has pigment--graying hair lacks pigment. Generally speaking, semipermanent hair color acts like permanent hair color if using a dye a shade darker than the natural hair color.

Hair Lightening Demipermanent

Formulated to deposit color on the hair shaft without lightening it. This formula has smaller molecules than those of temporary tinting formulas, and is therefore able to penetrate the hair shaft. It also lasts longer than semi permanent hair keeping color intact up to 15-24 shampoos.

The American Board of Certified Haircolorists and most major manufacturers of hair color now say one should color the new growth area with a permanent color to cover gray and touch up or refresh the ends and length of the hair with a compatible shade of demi permanent color to protect the condition of the hair.

Most hair color manufacturers offer a demi permanent hair color tube and a permanent hair color tube within their product line. However lately some hair color manufacturers like Compagnia Del Colore from Italy have come up with a very ingenious and cost efficient solution for hair colorists. By using an activator or 7 Volume Peroxide (2.1% H2O2)you can now use the same permanent hair color tube and convert it into a demi permanent hair color tube.

Hair Lightening Permanent

This is mixed with developer and remains in the hair shaft until new growth of hair occurs. It's used to match, lighten, and cover gray hair. Permanent hair color generally contains ammonia, oxidative tints, and peroxide. The allergic reaction that comes from hair dye is generally one of sensitization to p-phenylenediamine (PPD). The reaction will most likely occur each time one dyes one's hair and will probably get worse each time. The sensitization from the ingredients in hair color can extend to sensitization of other products of same or similar composition, including but not limited to the dye used in textiles, sunscreen, rubber, and/or certain medications.

Henna is a deposit-only hair color whose active component, lawsone, binds to keratin and is therefore permanent. Henna may be removed with mineral oil; however, it is considered "permanent" because it does not wash out with shampoos or rinses. It is often mixed with other plant dyes, such as indigo, turmeric, and senna, to change the color. Allergy to henna is much rarer than allergy to permanent hair colors. It is also considered a conditioning treatment.

Using a plant-based color, specifically henna, can cause problems later when trying to do a permanent wave (perm) and other permanent hair color. Discoloration can occur on hair that has been previously tinted with henna; hennaed hair typically cannot be curled. Breakage could also be an issue.

Special Effects

Special effects include highlighting and vivid, unusual hair colors such as green or fuchsia. Highlighting can range from temporary to permanent, using the techniques listed above and a special application process. The techniques required to apply highlighting can be difficult for an individual to perform upon him/herself. One can create looks that range from subtle highlights acquired during a day at the beach, to more dramatic looks, such as bold, chunky highlights.

The more exotic, bright dyes typically contain only tint, and have no developer. These are typically sold in punk-themed stores (such as comic book and music stores), but are rarely available at commercial hair dressers. Colors range from blood red to seafoam green. Many shades are blacklight reactive. Individuals with darker hair (medium brown to black) are advised to use a bleaching kit prior to tint application for the full effect of the color. Some people with fair hair may benefit from prior bleaching as well, as the yellow undertones of blonde hair can make blue dye look green. These dyes are less permanent, and tend to "bleed" onto other fabric even when dry. Users should anticipate staining of light-colored pillows for a week or so after application.

Social Stigma

In many conservative areas, dyeing one's hair a color that does not fall within the range of natural shades may not be considered socially acceptable outside of certain circles (subcultures), such as punk or goth. In many business environments, a strict professional dress code is imposed. As most of the people who work and make hiring decisions in these places consider extremely vivid hair colors to represent a lack of professionality (respect for authority or 'the rules'), someone who has dyed his or her hair an unnatural shade could risk being fired. Additionally, he or she could have a difficult time getting a new job, especially one which requires contact with a customer. Make-up, nail decoration, and clothing choices are also similarly stigmatized in conservative societies.

Further, in societies where pleasure in ones own personal appearance is repressed, the act of dyeing one's hair at all can lead to a lesser degree of social stigma, as a certain amount of 'snobbery' may be perceived by displaying ones natural color. "This is my natural color" is seen as an extremely positive, almost boastful, statement to make about one's appearance. There can also be an implication that to expend the time and money necessary in order to change one's hair color is indicative of unseemly vanity, or low self-esteem.

Social stigma may also be attached to natural hair colors. For example, brunettes are said to be the best cashiers, because they are known as honest. The three main European hair colors - blonde, brunette, and red - fall into common American stereotypes: blondes as glamourous/desirable or dumb, brunettes as classy/sophisticated or boring, redheads as eccentric or sexy/seductive or irascibly tempered. People have often been known to dye their hair to fit the stereotype. These stigmas span continents, as well as history.

Special thanks to, Source: Wikepedia.

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